Variety of flora and fauna




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Bulgarian Premier flora is characterized by very large numbers of species. Higher plants are distributed in 130 families and 872 genera with 3550 species, 847 subspecies and 2000 varieties. The mountains are rich in endemic species, some of which are found only in Bulgaria - Stara Planina primrose, rose Rhodope, Thracian oak, cream Rhodope, Rila and equal to many others. The vegetation cover consists of forests, occupying about one third of the territory, shrubs and grasses. Broadleaf deciduous forests predominate. They occupy the plains and hilly parts of the country (different types of oak and common beech), lower and middle part of the mountains at 1400-1800 m (plain durmast, hornbeam, beech Moesian). In the higher parts of mountains is mature pine belt, represented by pine, spruce, fir and Borisov plain. Special Balkan endemic add color - white and black fir. Characteristic of the country are dense forests - elm Polish, Polish-evident. The fauna of Bulgaria has a different origin. Central European species occurring in northern Bulgaria and the Balkan Mountains, steppes - mainly in eastern Bulgaria, Arctic-Alpine - in the high parts of the mountains, the Mediterranean - in southern part of the country. There are 29 000 species. Species is rich in invertebrate fauna. The large number of endemic species in the Western Rhodopes, Pirin, Rila and Central Balkan Mountain West makes these areas of special scientific interest. Vertebrate fauna is presented of 207 species and subspecies of fish and kraglousti, 52 species of amphibians and reptiles, 397 species of birds and 40 mammals. In the forests are red deer, roe deer, wild boar. The mountains are the black mink, badger, wolf, fox, and small rodents. Rich diversity of birds - 252 kinds are nesting. Bulgarian lands pass through two migration route of birds: Sofia-Ohrid Road, the west coast of the Black Sea and Via Mediterranean - in the river valley. Established in Europe by 29 species of birds that are endangered worldwide, in Bulgaria, 16 species nest: Dalmatian pelican, sea eagle, black vulture, golden eagle, Red-breasted Goose and others.